Polio

CDC Pink Book on Poliomyelitis
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/polio.pdf

Package Inserts (IPV)
http://www.immunize.org/packageinserts/pi_polioipv.asp

Polio Information
http://www.nvic.org/Vaccines-and-Diseases/Polio-SV40.aspx

Polio Data and Monitoring Worldwide
http://www.polioeradication.org/dataandmonitoring/poliothisweek.aspx

WHO Polio fact sheet
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/

History of Vaccines- Timeline: Polio
http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/polio


STUDIES ON POLIO:

Polio programme: let us declare victory and move on. (Indian J Med Ethics. 2012 Apr-Jun;9(2):114-7.)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591873

Mechanism of Injury-Provoked Poliomyelitis (J Virol. 1998 June; 72(6): 5056–5060.)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC110068/#B19

Polio (Scientific Citations)
http://thinktwice.com/s_polio.htm

Publication about a study that approved and oversaw the use of a more powerful polio vaccine used in India without knowledge or consent from the public and without tracking adverse effects which were also assumed to be more powerful.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2807%2961075-7/fulltext

After the use of the more powerful monovalent type 1 vaccine in India, non-polio flaccid paralysis following vaccination jumped- those vaccinated were more than twice as likely to die from non-polio paralysis than those infected with wild polio virus:
http://ijme.in/index.php/ijme/article/view/110/1065

The Cutter Incident (the polio vaccine sickens thousands, paralyzes hundreds and kills 10 in 1955)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1383764/

Polio strain (2013) mutated strain
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/35/12889.abstract

Polio: Mutated virus breaches vaccine protection (2014)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140821115706.htm

Vaccine-resistant polio strain discovered (2014)
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141104111408.htm

 

MEDIA COVERAGE ON POLIO:

Polio outbreak sparked by vaccines, experts say (10/5/2007)
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/21149823/

Mutant Polio Virus Spreads In Nigeria (August 14, 2009, 1: 23 PM)
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mutant-polio-virus-spreads-in-nigeria/

ARTICLES and OPINION PIECES:

The Lancet- Correspondence: Consent was not given for testing of new monovalent type 1 oral polio vaccine for India
http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673607610757.pdf

The Present Status of Polio Vaccines, Aug. and Sept. 1960- Illinois Medical Journal vol. 118
Reclassification of polio, ineffectiveness of Salk vaccine, diagnosis of new diseases previously classified as polio, etc
http://www.greatmothersquestioningvaccines.com/uploads/2/8/8/8/2888885/ratner_1960.pdf

Hearings Before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, 87th Congress, 2nd Session on HR 10541; May 1962: 94-112
http://www.vaccinerights.com/pdf/3-29-12-Alan_Phillips_JD_House_Testimony.pdf

Did Vaccines Really Eradicate Polio?
http://healthimpactnews.com/2011/did-vaccines-really-eradicate-polio/

The REAL History Behind the Polio Vaccine
http://healthimpactnews.com/2013/the-real-history-behind-the-polio-vaccine/

The polio vaccine: a critical assessment of its arcane history, efficacy, and long-term health-related consequences
http://www.thinktwice.com/Polio.pdf

Sister Elizabeth Kenny’s polio treatment methods and physical therapy
http://www.mnopedia.org/thing/sister-kenny-institute

http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/kenny-elizabeth-6934

http://www.oandp.com/articles/2008-11_09.asp

OTHER REFERENCES:

Catherine Diodati MA; Immunization History Ethics Law and Health, pg. 116

Existing polio vaccines
There are two types of poliovirus vaccines in current use. One is the killed Salk vaccine, which consists of chemically inactivated wild poliovirus. As there are three serotypes of poliovirus, the Salk vaccine contains a representative amount of each serotype. The Salk vaccine is administered intramuscularly, and being a killed vaccine, predominantly induces systemic antibodies. These protect against disease by preventing spread from the gut to the nervous system. However, the Salk vaccine does not induce strong mucosal immunity, so poliovirus can replicate freely in the intestines of even vaccinated individuals, and the infection can then be spread to unvaccinated contacts.

The second vaccine is the Sabin vaccine, which is a live-attenuated vaccine. It contains weakened vaccine strains of each of the three serotypes. The Sabin vaccine is given orally, replicates in the intestines of vaccinees, induces both mucosal and systemic immunity, and protects against infection of the intestine by ingested virulent poliovirus. The Sabin vaccine also has drawbacks; notably, it can revert to a virulent form, and there are documented cases of circulating revertant Sabin poliovirus causing outbreaks of disease in areas from which the natural virus had been previously eradicated.”
http://www.globalvaccines.org/content/polio+vaccine+program/19613

“IPV induces very low levels of immunity in the intestine. As a result, when a person immunized with IPV is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus can still multiply inside the intestines and be shed in the faeces, risking continued circulation.”
http://www.polioeradication.org/Polioandprevention/Thevaccines/Inactivatedpoliovaccine(IPV).aspx

“Although OPV is safe and effective, in extremely rare cases the live attenuated vaccine virus in OPV can cause paralysis.
A second disadvantage is that very rarely the virus in the vaccine may genetically change and start to circulate among a population.”
http://www.polioeradication.org/Polioandprevention/Thevaccines/Oralpoliovaccine(OPV).aspx